PSCDG Review Articles
Aflatoonian B, Moore H. Germ cells from mouse and human embryonic stem cells.  Reproduction 2006; 132(5):699-707.

Clark AT, Reijo Pera RA. Modeling human germ cell development with embryonic stem cells. Regen Med 2006; 1(1):85-93.

Daley GQ. Gametes from embryonic stem cells: a cup half empty or half full? Science 2007; 316(5823):409-410.

Kehler J, Hubner K, Garrett S, Scholer HR. Generating oocytes and sperm from embryonic stem cells. Semin Reprod Med 2005; 23(3):222-233.

Nagano MC. In vitro gamete derivation from pluripotent stem cells: progress and perspective. Biol Reprod 2007; 76(4):546-551.

PSCDG Articles

Clark AT, Bodnar MS, Fox M et al. Spontaneous differentiation of germ cells from human embryonic stem cells in vitro. Hum Mol Genet 2004; 13(7):727-739.

Drusenheimer N, Wulf G, Nolte J et al. Putative human male germ cells from bone marrow stem cells. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 2007; 63:69-76.

Dyce PW, Wen L, Li J. In vitro germline potential of stem cells derived from fetal porcine skin. Nat Cell Biol 2006; 8(4):384-390.

Geijsen N, Horoschak M, Kim K, Gribnau J, Eggan K, Daley GQ. Derivation of embryonic germ cells and male gametes from embryonic stem cells. Nature 2004; 427(6970):148-154.

Hubner K, Fuhrmann G, Christenson LK et al. Derivation of oocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells. Science 2003; 300(5623):1251-1256.

Kerkis A, Fonseca SA, Serafim RC et al. In vitro differentiation of male mouse embryonic stem cells into both presumptive sperm cells and oocytes. Cloning Stem Cells 2007; 9(4):535-548.

Lacham-Kaplan O, Chy H, Trounson A. Testicular cell conditioned medium supports differentiation of embryonic stem cells into ovarian structures containing oocytes. Stem Cells 2006; 24(2):266-273.

Nayernia K, Li M, Jaroszynski L et al. Stem cell based therapeutical approach of male infertility by teratocarcinoma derived germ cells. Hum Mol Genet 2004; 13(14):1451-1460.

Nayernia K, Nolte J, Michelmann HW et al. In vitro-differentiated embryonic stem cells give rise to male gametes that can generate offspring mice. Dev Cell 2006; 11(1):125-132.

Nayernia K, Lee JH, Drusenheimer N et al. Derivation of male germ cells from bone marrow stem cells. Lab Invest 2006; 86(7):654-663.

Toyooka Y, Tsunekawa N, Akasu R, Noce T. Embryonic stem cells can form germ cells in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100(20):11457-11462.

iPS Cells

Nakagawa M, Koyanagi M, Tanabe K et al. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells without Myc from mouse and human fibroblasts. Nat Biotechnol 2008; 26(1):101-106.

Park IH, Zhao R, West JA et al. Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency with defined factors. Nature 2008; 451(7175):141-146.

Takahashi K, Yamanaka S. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell 2006; 126(4):663-676.

Other Science Articles

McLaren A. Primordial germ cells in the mouse. Dev Biol 2003; 262(1):1-15.

Hunt PA, Hassold TJ. Human female meiosis: what makes a good egg go bad? Trends Genet 2008; 24(2):86-93.

Kono T, Obata Y, Wu Q et al. Birth of parthenogenetic mice that can develop to adulthood. Nature 2004; 428(6985):860-864.

Lawrence LT, Moley KH. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies: human imprinting syndromes. Semin Reprod Med 2008; 26(2):143-152.

Smith KR. Gene Therapy: The Potential Applicability of Gene Transfer Technology to the Human Germline. Int J Med Sci 2004; 1(2):76-91.

Yates F, Daley GQ. Progress and prospects: gene transfer into embryonic stem cells. Gene Ther 2006; 13(20):1431-1439.

van de Lavoir MC, Diamond JH, Leighton PA et al. Germline transmission of genetically modified primordial germ cells. Nature 2006; 441(7094):766-769.

Kazuki Y, Hoshiya H, Kai Y et al. Correction of a genetic defect in multipotent germline stem cells using a human artificial chromosome. Gene Ther 2008.
             239    Hohenstein KA, Pyle AD, Chern JY, Lock LF, Donovan PJ. Nucleofection Mediates High-efficiency Stable Gene Knockdown and Transgene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells. Stem Cells 2008.


Ethics of PSCDG

Testa G, Harris J. Ethics and synthetic gametes. Bioethics 2005; 19(2):146-166.

Lippman A, Newman SA, Testa G, Harris J. The Ethics of Deriving Gametes from ES Cells. Science 2005; 307(5709):515c-517c.

Master Z. Embryonic stem-cell gametes: the new frontier in human reproduction. Hum Reprod 2006; 21(4):857-863.

McLaren A. Free-range eggs? Science 2007; 316(5823):339.

Mertes H, Pennings G. Embryonic stem cell-derived gametes and genetic parenthood: a problematic relationship. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2008; 17:7-14.

Newson AJ, Smajdor AC. Artificial gametes: new paths to parenthood? J Med Ethics 2005; 31(3):184-186.

Testa G, Harris J. Genetics. Ethical aspects of ES cell-derived gametes. Science 2004; 305(5691):1719.

Whittaker P. Stem cells to gametes: how far should we go? Hum Fertil (Camb ) 2007; 10(1):1-5.

Same Sex Parents

Greenfeld DA. Gay male couples and assisted reproduction: should we assist? Fertil Steril 2007; 88(1):18-20.

Maccallum F, Golombok S. Children raised in fatherless families from infancy: a follow-up of children of lesbian and single heterosexual mothers at early adolescence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2004; 45(8):1407-1419.

Tasker F. Lesbian mothers, gay fathers, and their children: a review. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2005; 26(3):224-240.

Other Ethics Articles

Sade RM. Introduction: religions and cultures of East and west: perspectives on bioethics. J Law Med Ethics 2008; 36(1):7-9.

Chan S, Harris J. The ethics of gene therapy. Curr Opin Mol Ther 2006; 8(5):377-383.

Harris J. Essays on science and society: Intimations of immortality. Science 2000; 288(5463):59.

Kass LR. L'Chaim and its limits: why not immortality? First Things 2001;(113):17-24.

Kimmelman J. The ethics of human gene transfer. Nat Rev Genet 2008; 9(3):239-244.

Mehlman MJ. Genetic enhancement: plan now to act later. Kennedy Inst Ethics J 2005; 15(1):77-82.

Mwase IM. Genetic enhancement and the fate of the worse off. Kennedy Inst Ethics J 2005; 15(1):83-89.

Savulescu J. Education and debate: Deaf lesbians, "designer disability," and the future of medicine. BMJ 2002; 325(7367):771-773

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